Draft list as of January 10, 2020 (Initial compilation began for the Will Duffy / Matt Slick debate.)
33 CATEGORIES OF TYPES OF OPEN THEISM VERSES each of which indicates that the future is not settled but open. These show that...
1 - God Wants His Prophecies of Judgment to Fail which could only happen with an open future.
God say to the wicked, "You shall surely die", but repent, so that you will "not die" Ezek. 33:14-15; Judah should repent so that God "may repent (not of sin, of course, but) concerning the calamity which I purpose to bring" Jer. 26:3; God's people should repent so that "then the Lord will repent concerning the doom that He has pronounced against you" Jer. 26:13; "I will judge you," God says, so "repent," because "why should you die"? Ezek. 18:30-31; when I say I will destroy a nation, if it repents then I will repent and I will not destroy the nation "that I thought" to destroy Jer. 18:7-8 (This is God's interpretation of this Potter and Clay passage. However, many rejected God's warning by elevating prophecy above God Himself Jer. 18:18. Yet God affirmed the inverse.); When I say that I will bless a nation, if they disobey Me, I will repent and not do that "which I said I would" do Jer. 18:9-10 (So, contradicting the Calvinist interpretation of the Potter and the Clay, this meaning is exactly why God quotes Jer. 18 in Rom. 9.); implicit in God's urging Jerusalem to repent is that He wants to change His mind about the plan and disaster that He has fashioned and devised against them, so that He would not be compelled to bring it to pass, for "Thus says the Lord: 'Behold, I am fashioning a disaster and devising a plan against you. Return now every one from his evil way, and make your ways and your doings good.'" Jer. 18:11; "God repented from the disaster that He said He would bring upon [Nineveh] and He did not do it" Jonah 3:10. Why didn't He? Because God is great! The Bible says that love is greater than both prophecy and having all knowledge (philosophers call these exhaustive foreknowledge and omniscience) for
"though I have... prophecy and... all knowledge... but have not love, I am nothing" 1 Cor. 13:2; God cared more for the people of Nineveh than He did for the fulfillment of the prophecy of its destruction Jonah 4:11; Etc., for example, see all of the repent verses below.
2 - God Exists in Time through duration contrary to the opposing claim of Plato and Augustine.
- Jesus is waiting until His enemies are made His footstool Heb. 10:13 and see the related passages Ps. 110:1; Mat. 22:44; Luke 20:43; Acts 2:35; Heb. 1:13; John 1:14; God gets weary of repenting Jer. 15:6; asks "how long" shall I bear with an evil people Num. 14:27; and with God in time, of course, so the rest of the spiritual realm exists in time Mat. 8:29
- Scripture never describes God as atemporal, timeless, having no past or future, or outside of time; the Bible frequently though describes Him as in duration including "God who is - and was - and is to come" Rev. 1:4; "whose goings forth are from of old" Mic. 5:2; "forever and ever" Ex. 15:18; 1 Chr. 29:10; Ps. 10:16; 45:6; 48:14; Heb. 1:8; Rev. 4:9; 4:10; 5:14; 10:6; 11:15; 15:7; "the Ancient of Days" Dan. 7:9; 7:13; 7:22; in the Greek, from before the ages of the ages 2 Tim. 1:9; Titus 1:2; "from ancient times" Isa. 46:10; "the everlasting God" Gen. 21:33; Isa. 40:28; Rom. 16:26; [Deut. 33:27]; "He continues forever" Heb. 7:24; "from of old" Ps. 25:6; 55:19; 93:2; Isa. 57:11; "from everlasting" Ps. 93:2; Micah 5:2; "remains forever" John 12:34; has "everlasting dominion" Dan. 4:34; "abides" 1 John 2:17; "eternal" Rom. 1:20; 2 Cor. 4:18; 1 Tim. 1:17; Heb. 9:14; 1 John 5:11; Immortal 1 Tim. 1:17; 6:16; "the Lord shall endure forever" Ps. 9:7; who "lives forever" Dan. 4:34; 12:7; Rev. 4:9; 4:10; 5:14; 10:6; 15:7; "yesterday, today, and forever" Heb. 13:8; "His years" Job 36:26; "manifest in His own time" 1 Tim. 6:15; "everlasting Father" Isa. 9:6; "alive forevermore" Rev. 1:18; "always lives" Heb. 7:25; "forever" Ps. 110:4; 146:10; Dan. 6:26; Rom. 16:27; 2 Cor. 9:9; Heb. 1:8; 7:21; 24; 28; 1 John 2:17; Jude 1:25; Rev. 1:6; "continually" Ps.40:11; 52:1; Luke 1:33; Heb. 7:3; "the eternal God" Deut. 33:27; God’s "years will have no end" Ps. 102:27; "from everlasting to everlasting" 1 Chr. 16:36; Ps. 41:13; 90:2; 106:48; "from that time forward, even forever" Isa. 9:7; "He will reign... and of His kingdom there will be no end" Luke 1:33; etc. And see the closely related verses below showing that God acts in sequence and also that time exists in heaven.
3 - God has Qualities that can Only be had if He Exists in Time like patience, slow to anger, and hope.
Patience: 1 Peter 3:20; Ex. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Neh. 9:30; Ps. 86:15; Rom. 2:4; 9:22; 1 Tim. 1:16; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 3:9, 15; Jer. 15:15; and "God is Love" 1 John 4:8, 16 and "Love is patient" 1 Cor. 13:4 and He is "the God of patience" Rom. 15:5 etc.
Endurance: God endured His people’s complaints Num. 14:27; their cries Luke 18:7; the wicked Rom. 9:22; hostility Heb. 12:3; the cross Heb. 12:2
Slow to anger and long-suffering: Neh. 9:17; Ps. 103:8; 145:8; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2; Nah. 1:3;
Sustain emotion: I will not remain angry forever Jer. 3:12
Faithfulness: from everlasting to everlasting He endures in faithfulness for He is "the faithful God" Deut 7:9; possessing great faithfulness Lam. 3:23; Ps. 36:5; 37:3; 71:22; Ps. 89:24; God's faithfulness is not an inability (because He cannot change) but an ability (which He must actively maintain) Ps. 89:33; 92:2; 98:3; 119:75; 119:90; 143:1; Isa. 11:5; 25:1; Hos. 2:20;
Hope: for hope that is seen is not hope, yet God hopes Romans 8:24 & 15:13; "My Father... is One who seeks and judges" John 8:49-50; for "He seeks godly offspring" Mal. 2:15; (and see the expectation verses below, including Isa. 5:1-4; 30:15-16; 63:8-10; Zeph. 3:7; Jer. 18 and the judgment prophecy verses above including Ezek. 33:14-15; Jer. 18:7-8; 26:3, 13; Ezek. 18:30-31)
Can be limited: "they... limited the Holy One of Israel" Ps. 78:41 (because love must be freely given, thus limiting God when His love goes unrequited)
Related abilities: See also the remembers and looks forward to verses in the next category.
Consider also Wisdom Job 12:13 (and even discernment Heb. 4:12). About 1,000 times God's Word mentions wisdom, knowledge, and understanding, four times more frequently than the mention of miracles, signs, and wonders. Wisdom is the application of experiential knowledge and good judgment. Wisdom, like insight, involves outcomes Prov. 3:19, 9:10; etc., and doing now what you will be satisfied with later. So God is frequently described as wise and having wisdom Job 9:4; 1 Kings 3:28; Dan. 2:20; 1 Cor. 1:25; 1 Tim. 1:17; Jude 25; Just as the Bible says that "hope that is seen is not hope", likewise, [good] judgment that is seen is not judgment. Further, experiential knowledge (see below), like good judgment and hope, is a kind of knowledge that can only be had by one who exists in time.
4 - God Acts Externally in Sequence showing that He is not outside of but in time (and see also just below, sequence within the Godhead).
"But this Man [God the Son], after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God, from that time waiting till His enemies" are subdued Heb. 10:12-13; prior to this God had created, and then ceased from His creative work Gen. 2:1-3; later God waited while ark was being prepared 1 Peter 3:20; God speaks in heaven 1 Kings 22:19-20 and from heaven 3:17; 17:5; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22; 2 Peter 1:17 (speaking requires sequence, which is why Augustine claimed that God could not speak, because Augustine, sadly, had been convinced of divine atemporality by Plato); God was manifested in the flesh and (then after His death for Man's sin) justified by the Holy Spirit 1 Tim. 3:16; He suffered, killed, buried, and raised the third day Mat. 12:40; 16:21; 17:23; Mark 8:31; Luke 9:22; Acts 4:10; Rom. 14:9; 1 Cor. 15:4; regarding the old and new covenants He took "away the first that He may establish the second" Heb. 10:9; Jesus rose and then sought His disciples Mat. 26:32; Mark 14:28; John 21:14; God the Son went from not having a body John 4:24, to indwelling a form Gen. 3:8; 18:1-3; etc., to taking on a human body Luke 1:31, to having a glorified body Phil 3:21; and God the Son "passed through the heavens" Heb. 4:14, whatever that means, to get from Earth to the Father's throne room.
- God remembers past and looks forward to future times. God remembers as when He remembered His covenant with Abraham Ex. 2:24; and with Jacob Lev. 26:42; and His holy promise to the Israelites Ps. 105:42; etc.; Cornelius (the Gentile saved before baptism and apart from circumcision) had his alms remembered by God Acts 10:31; and God will remember Babylon's sins Rev. 16:19 and their iniquities Rev. 18:5; See also Gen 9:12-15; Ps. 136:23; Mal. 3:16; etc. (Also, when theologians say that God "enters" into time, what they're actually referring to is when God interacts with His creation. So as seen throughout Genesis to Revelation, even the common theological way of speaking admits that God acts in sequence, as there is a before He "enters" time and an after.)
- God looks forward to future times, as when His apostles would sit on twelve thrones and when He would sit on the throne of His glory Mat. 19:28; "My Father... is One who seeks" John 8:49-50; "He seeks godly offspring" Mal. 2:15; He held the righteous dead in "Abraham's Bosom" awaiting Christ's death, figuratively, with Abraham's Bosom as the City of Refugee, "until the death of the one who would be high priest in those days" Joshua 20:6; and literally, and symbolic of the entire group, upon Christ's death many graves were opened and the saints who had died were raised Mat. 27:52; at which time the deceased saints could finally then enter into heaven; also all "the days are coming" passages, like Amos 9:13-14; Mal. 3:17; etc.
- Etc. And see the closely related verses above showing that God having duration exists in time and below that time exists in heaven.
5 - God Experiences Sequence Within the Godhead of relationship, sharing glory, deciding, planning, becoming things, etc.
The Father prepared a body for His Son Heb. 10:5; then He became the Father of a Son with two natures John 1:14; Luke 1:35 when the Holy Spirit overshadowed Mary; then the Father increased in favor with His Son Luke 2:52; the Son increased, for He must increase John 3:30; after the Son took upon Himself Man's sin, the Holy Spirit justified the Son 1 Tim. 3:16; (and if the throne at God's right hand suffices to refer to the Godhead, then consider also) God the Son, having become "the Son of Man", looks forward to again sitting on the throne of His glory Mat. 19:28; the glory the Father gave to the Son because He loved Him before the creation John 17:24; and the glory He had shared with the Father before the world began John 17:5; "Then the Lord said in His heart, "I will never again... destroy every living thing as I have done'" Gen. 8:21; etc.
6 - God Says Certain Things Happened that Never Entered His Mind.
They burn their sons with fire for burnt offerings which I did not command or speak nor did it come into My mind Jer. 19:5; they cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire to Molech which I did not command them nor did it come into My mind that they should do this abomination to cause Judah to sin Jer. 32:35; they burn their sons and their daughters in the fire to sacrifice them which I did not command nor did it come into My heart Jer. 7:31; [For other sins like adultery and theft God never says, It didn't enter My mind and I didn't command it. So why say this regarding child sacrifice? First, He did command the sacrificial system. And second, He commanded Abraham to offer up his son Gen. 22:2; Heb. 11:17. (God prevented that from happening. But 2000 years later the Father Himself would offer up His Son Rom. 8:32 and on that very same kgov.com/mt-moriah 2 Chron. 3:1.) Thus God made two things abundantly clear. Back when He ordered Abraham to demonstrate the kind of love (commitment) that the Father Himself would later demonstrate (Rom. 5:8), first, He certainly had not commanded that men sacrifice their children, and secondly, it hadn't even entered His mind that men would actually do such a thing. See also Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5; Deut. 12:31; 18:9-10; 2 Kings 3:27; 2 Kings 16:3; 17:17, 31; 21:6; 23:10; 2 Chr. 28:3; 33:6; Ps. 106:35-38; Isa 57:5; Ezek. 16:20-21; 20:26, 31; 23:37].
7 - God Indicates the Future is Uncertain by saying perhaps, by chance, lest, etc.
"Perhaps everyone will listen and turn [repent, so] that I may repent concerning the calamity which I purpose to bring on them" Jer. 26:3; "Then it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, 'Lest perhaps the people change their mind and return to Egypt'" Ex. 13:17; if the Egyptians "do not believe you nor heed the message of the first sign, that they may believe the message of the latter sign. And it shall be, if they do not believe even these two signs, or listen to your voice, that you shall take water from the river and pour it on the dry land. The water... will become blood" Ex. 4:8-9 (the Bible doesn't record but Egypt's secular writing does that indeed it did come to this, when Moses poured the water on the ground); "The Lord said, "Indeed the people are one... and this is what they begin to do; now nothing they propose to do will be withheld from them" Gen. 11:6; perhaps regarding Israel, "it may be that they will consider" and repent Ezek. 12:3; "by chance a certain priest came down that road [to Jericho] Luke 10:31; "if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land... it shall be that I will do to you as I thought to do to them Num. 33:55-56 (that is, God threatened to cast out Israel, as happened by the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities, instead of casting out the pagan nations); "Then they drew near to the village where they were going, and He [Jesus] indicated that He would have gone farther. But they constrained Him saying, 'Abide with us...' and He went in to stay with them" Luke 24:28-29; See also Mark 6:48 and Ezek. 7:23-24, the future now being different from what it would have been, but for their bloody crime.
8 - God Says He Repents and Changes His Mind i.e., changes course, though not like a man from sin of course.
God saw Nineveh's turning away from their sin and so God repented (standard Hebrew word for repent, nacham, as throughout) Jonah 3:10; 3:2-4; 4:11 that is, "God repented from the disaster that He had said He would bring upon them, and He did not do it"; then there's Samuel's repent sandwich 1 Sam. 15:11, 29, 35 in which God says 15:11 and 15:35 that He repented that He made Saul king (so He replaced Saul with David), and in the middle of those two statements, 15:29, He insists that He will not repent of having ended Saul's dynasty, that is, He will not repent from having repented. (This cannot be a figure of speech because it is an action, see below, i.e., actually removing Saul is not just words; it is action 1 Sam. 15:26-28; 1 Sam. 13:13-14. Like other times when God repents, here He does not only repent in word but also in deed. So therefore, the repentant deeds themselves cannot be figures "of speech" and thus they show actual, not figurative, repentance of heart and mind.) The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth and He repented that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart Gen. 6:6; So the Lord said, "I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth... for I repent that I have made them" Gen. 6:7; Num. 14:12, 20; Ex. 32:14 (etc.); Judges 2:18 (in the Hebrew); 2 Sam. 24:16; 1 Chr. 21:15; Ps. 106:45; 135:14 (in the Hebrew); God says He is "weary of repenting" (from not meting out more severe judgment) Jer. 15:6; perhaps Israel will repent so that I can repent of the calamity which I purpose to bring upon them because of their evil doings 26:3, God wants to repent from the doom He has pronounced against Jerusalem Jer. 26:13; God repented from the doom which He had pronounced against them Jer. 26:19; in forbidding Judah to flee to Egypt God repents of the destruction that He had brought upon them 42:10 (i.e., He is willing to give them a reprieve); God repents of destroying Jerusalem by way of Micah’s prophecy Micah 3:12 with Jer. 26:18-19; God is worthy of Zion's trust because He repents Joel 2:13 as Jonah knew the Lord also as the kind of God who prents Jonah 4:2; the Lord repented of destroying Jacob's late harvest Amos 7:1-3; the Lord repented of His desire to bring a fiery judgment upon His people Amos 7:6; when I say I will destroy a nation, if that nation repents then I will not destroy the nation "that I thought" to destroy Jer. 18:7-8, 11 (again, this is the actual interpretation, God's interpretation of The Potter and the Clay passage); when I say that I will bless a nation, if they disobey Me, I will not do that which I said I will do Jer. 18:9-10; so, implicit in God's urging Jersualem to repent is that He is willing to change His mind about His own plans Jer. 18:11.
9 - God Says Things Are Possible that would be Impossible if the future were settled or decreed.
Lest God consume Israel on the way Ex. 33:3 (i.e., during their forty years in the wilderness); Jesus could call for twelve legions of angels Mat. 26:53 (to save Him from the cross); God has provided a way for believers to resist any temptation 1 Cor. 10:13 (if only they trust Him); God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones Mat. 3:9; Luke 3:8; at times Jesus speaks in parables so that some of His opponents will not understand Mat. 13:15; Isa. 6:9-10; Mark 4:12; Luke 8:10; (by then putting His clear interpretation of the Sower parable into the Bible proves that Jesus' purpose was to thwart those unbelievers of His day, and not to confuse all generations of unbelievers who today can simply read the interpretation in any Bible); God could destroy Israel and raise up a new nation to Himself Num. 14:12; God could have destroyed Nineveh in forty days Jonah 3:4 (as He had said He would, but they repented so He did not Jonah 3:10); God doesn’t bring the Israelites through the wilderness by a certain route so they won’t be tempted to go back to Egypt Ex. 13:17; I could come up in one moment and consume Israel Ex. 33:5; God could destroy the land Ezek. 22:30; God could have enabled Eli’s sons to have ministered forever to Him 1 Sam. 2:30; God could have given to Saul a perpetual dynasty 1 Sam. 13:13-14 & 2 Sam. 7:15; God could have totally destroyed Jerusalem 1 Chr. 21:11-12, 15; God could destroy a nation but may not if it later repents Jer. 18:7-8, God could bless a nation but may not if it later does evil Jer. 18:9-10; that as the tabernacle and the ark had been in Shiloh for centuries but then left never to be returned, likewise God threatened to permanently remove his Temple from Jerusalem Jer. 26:6; Ezekiel shall bake a specific cake that never gets baked Ezek. 4:12-15; I will fulfill My anger against the Israelites while they are still in the midst of the land of Egypt Ezek. 20:8-9, and in the wilderness Ezek. 20:13-14, 17; God says to the righteous, you shall surely live, but it turns out that he shall die Ezek. 33:13; God says to the wicked, you shall surely die, but it turns out that he lives Ezek. 33:14; and then the children in the wilderness Ezek. 20:21-22; destroy Jerusalem by Micah’s prophecy Micah 3:12 with Jer. 26:18-19; Hezekiah is about to die Isa. 38:1; 2 Kings 20:1; God would have healed (blessed) Israel but for their sin Hos. 7:1; God hardens people’s hearts (against what?), so that they wouldn’t do the things that they couldn’t do anyway, if everything had been decreed Ex. 4:21; 9:12; 10:20, 27; 11:10; 14:4, 8, 17; Deut. 2:30; Josh. 11:20; 1 Sam. 6:6; John 12:40; the wicked "limited the Holy One of Israel" from doing what He otherwise would have done Ps. 78:41; because of the unbelief of the Nazarenes Jesus did not do many miracles among them like He would have done Mat. 13:58; of course within the constraint of rationality and including the saving of men, "with God all things are possible Mat. 19:26; (see also other passages among the God repents verses; and see Mat. 18:6; and see those passages in the next category: God Said He’ll Do Something He Never Does).
10 - God Says He Will Do Something that He Never Does.
Without fail cast out the Canaanites Josh 3:10 with Deut. 7:1, 23, Jud. 2:1, 3, 20-23, 3:5, 10; 10:13; Ex. 32:10; 33:2, 3; Deut. 12:29; calamity on Ahab 1 Kings 21:21 & 29; said He would destroy Israelites but did not Ps. 106:23; destroy a nation Jer. 18:7-8; destroy the Hebrews while still in Egypt Ezek. 20:8, and while in the wilderness 20:13-14, 17, and then the children in the wilderness Ezek. 20:21-22; destroy Jerusalem by Micah’s prophecy Micah 3:12 with Jer. 26:18-19.
11 - God Expects that Something Will Happen that Doesn’t Happen.
God expected Israel would repent so He made a winepress Isaiah 5:1-2 but she did not. "What more could have been done...?", God asks, thus He says, I expected Israel to bring forth repentance Isa. 5:3-4; Israel will return to Me Jer. 3:7 (in the Hebrew); God said, "I have caused the whole house... of Judah to cling to Me... but they would not hear" Jer. 13:11; "I said, 'You shall... not turn away from Me.' [but] as a wife treacherously departs from her husband, so have you dealt treacherously with Me" Jer. 3:19-20; "I said, 'Surely you will fear Me, you will receive instruction' but... they corrupted all their deeds" Zeph. 3:7; Because Israel didn't act as God expected, He said, "Surely they are My people [and will act in truth] but they rebelled and grieved His Holy Spirit, so He turned HImself against them Isa. 63:8-10; "For thus says the Lord God... 'In returning you shall be saved...' But you would not, and you said, 'No...'" Isaiah 30:15-16; God says, I will not destroy the nation "that I thought" to destroy Jer. 18:7-8 as God had said, forty days and Nineveh will be destroyed Jonah 3:4, 10.
12 - God Increases and Learns for He must increase.
The Father became the Father of a Son with two natures (adding to the Son's eternal divine nature was the human nature that He took upon Himself by the Incarnation); watching the Child grow, the Father’s favor, itself, increased (grew) toward His son Luke 2:52 (and this, undoubte dly, infinitely beyond the combined increase in joy experienced by all other fathers seeing their own children grow); as the Son began His public ministry, the Father's joy and favor continued to grow as He was well pleased with Him 2 Peter 1:17; this increase in natures of course affected the Son also John 1:14 (in that He took upon Himself a human nature), He learned obedience Heb. 5:8; and became obedient even to the point of death Phil. 2:8; He was tempted Heb. 4:15 [within the constraints of James 1:13; consider also that Adam, Eve, Lucifer, etc., sinned without possessing a sin nature; instead, they had the nature of free moral beings; further, if Jesus Himself could not have sinned, then first, He could not have been tempted; and secondly, He could not have been fully human, which of course, He was; fully human, and fully divine, having taken on Himself a second nature through what theologians call the hypostatic union, something that God the Son did not have through eternity past but something He took upon Himself and shall have through eternity future]; iniquity was found in Lucifer (i.e., found, not foreknown by God nor decreed to be there, but found) Ezek. 28:15; at the cross God the Son learned firsthand, experientially, the consequences of sin Gal. 3:13; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:24; etc.; He must increase John 3:30; and see also the verses in the experiential knowledge category below.
13 - God Shows Regret similar to repent and uses the same Hebrew word, nacham.
I greatly regret making Saul king 1 Sam. 15:11 therefore God deposed Saul from the throne and gave the dynasty to David. For "Samuel said to Saul, 'You have done foolishly. You have not kept the commandment of the LORD… For… the LORD would have established your kingdom over Israel forever. But now your kingdom shall not continue…'" 1 Sam. 13:13-14. [An "action" cannot be a figure of speech. Why not? Because an action is not only speech; it is an action. God "repenting" that He made Saul King 1 Sam. 15:11, 35 could theoretically be a figure of speech (but if so, then as a figure, it would have to convey some actual meaning). However "to repent" does not refer only to words or thoughts, but it can also refer to an action (to turn from). When any word, including the word "repent", refers to an action, then it cannot be a figure "of speech", because it is an action. When God removed Saul from the throne, and then actually gave the dynasty to David, that deposing of Saul was an action that God performed. This powerfully illustrates a reason why God inspired His Word as a historical narrative rather than merely as a series of abstractions, so that we would constrain our interpretations based on the biblical accounts.] The Lord repented that He had made man on the earth and was grieved Gen. 6:6-7 so He destroyed the earth's population, which is not speech but an action [except for Noah's family Mat. 24:37-38; 1 Peter 3:20] etc., including the other repent verses.
14 - God Wants to See What Men Will Do Wants to Test Man / Didn’t Know What Men Would Do.
Gen. 2:19; God said to Abraham, "now I know that you fear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me" Gen. 22:12; "there He tested them" Ex. 15:25-26; 16:4; Deut. 8:2; 13:3; Judges 2:22; 3:4; Ex. 20:20; 2 Chr. 32:31; Ps. 17:3; Jonah 3:10.
15 - God Does Not Have All Present Knowledge.
The Holy Spirit, third person of the Godhead, did not know something that the Father knew, namely, the planned day and hour of the Second Coming Mark 13:32 and of course that lack of knowledge did not negate His divinity for the quantitative attribute of omniscience is not like the absolute qualitative attributes; likewise, no man, no angel, nor even the Son knew, for "of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, but My Father only" of the persons of the Godhead, with even the Second Person not knowing the timing of the Second Coming which was in the purview of the Father alone Mat. 24:36 (and of course, not knowing the timing of the Second Coming, like not knowing when WWII ended, means that an enormous quantity of additional information is not known); God, after temporarily emptying Himself of knowledge in a Christophany, will go down to Sodom to see firsthand the state of its depravity Gen. 18:21; God does not have the present firsthand knowledge of knowing what it is like to sin for He is described as "He who knew no sin" 2 Cor. 5:21 for He is sinless, holy and good 1 Sam. 2:2; 1 John 1:5; Mark 10:18, something presently known to billions of creatures; ; (Paul writes that God the Son became "a curse for us" and became "sin for us" on the cross but of course that does not mean that He Himself sinned but rather that He took the sin of others onto Himself; if anyone argues otherwise, aside from being wrong, they would also be arguing that at the cross, God's learned what it is like to sin; He did not, but at the cross God the Son did learn firsthand the consequences of sin Gal. 3:13; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Pet. 2:24; etc.); other present knowledge God lacks is in not having all experiential knowledge; etc.
16 - God Intervenes to Prevent what would Otherwise Happen and addresses contingencies.
Cherubim block the way to the Tree of Life lest Adam and Eve physically never die Gen. 3:22-24 by eating of the tree's super-nutritious fruit Rev. 22:2; the men of Babel will accomplish things that God wants to prevent them from accomplishing Gen. 11:5-8; "God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines... for God said, 'Lest perhaps the people change their minds when they see war, and return to Egypt'" Ex. 13:17; etc.
17 - God Indicates Certain Prophecies Will Go Unfulfilled (God Says What Will Happen, But Then Says That It Won’t Happen).
God says He will "without fail" cast out the Canaanites, Jebusites, etc., but a generation later because of Israel's rebellion, God says that He will not cast them out Josh 3:10 with Deut. 7:1, 23, Jud. 2:1, 20-23, 3:5, 10; Ex. 32:10; 33:2, 3; Deut. 12:29; Judges 2:3; 10:13; God issues prophecies against Tyre and then reveals that the prophecy did not come to pass (and certainly not in its various details) Ezek. 26:12; 29:18; see there regarding Egypt also; etc.
18 - God Gives Men Options and Recognizes that They Can Choose Among Them including invitations.
"I call heaven and earth as witnesses today against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing; therefore choose life that both you and your descendants may live" Deut. 30:19; Go and tell David, "Thus says the Lord: 'I offer you three things; choose one of them for yourself, that I may do it to you'" regarding optional punishments 2 Sam. 24:12 So Gad came to David and said to him, "Thus says the Lord: 'Choose for yourself, either three years of famine, or three months to be defeated by your foes with the sword of your enemies overtaking you, or else for three days the sword of the Lord—the plague in the land, with the angel of the Lord destroying throughout all the territory of Israel.' Now consider what answer I should take back to Him who sent me." And David said to Gad, "...Please let me fall into the hand of the Lord, for His mercies are very great; but do not let me fall into the hand of man." 1 Chr. 21:11-13; And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die." Gen. 2:16-17; Ezek.18:30-32. [Mat. 22:8-9, 14]
19 - God Says He Does Not Know What Will Happen (similar to the perhaps category above).
"God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines... for God said, 'Lest perhaps the people change their minds when they see war, and return to Egypt'" Ex. 13:17; perhaps Israel will repent so that I can repent Jer. 26:3; how long until Israel repents Hos. 8:5;
20 - God Says He Will No Longer Do Something He Said He Would Do.
Isa. 5:1-6; When I say that I will bless a nation, if they disobey Me, I will not do that which I said I will do Jer. 18:9-10; Drive out nations Joshua 23:13; Judge 2:21; Jonah 3:10.
21 - God Did Things Before the Creation showing sequence before the foundation of the world, i.e., before He allegedly created time.
God chose us in Him (i.e., planned for the members of the Body of Christ) Eph. 1:4-5 ; the persons of the Godhead shared their glory John 17:5, 24; God foreordained wisdom for our glory before the ages 1 Cor. 2:7; Christ was foreknown before the foundation 1 Peter 1:20 [i.e., that God the Son would become the Messiah, even though we’re told, wrongly, that God can’t do anything in sequence].
22 - Things that God Became (He was not always these things, so if He wants to He can become such).
Man, God the Son “became flesh” John 1:14 (after saying He is not a man Hos. 11:9; 1 Sam. 15:29; Job 9:32; [Ps. 146:3]); became the Creator Gen. 1:1; became Sovereign (by creating); became perfected (as a Man) Heb. 5:9; became obedient to the point of death Phil. 2:8; became the Savior “I became your Savior” Isa. 63:8; Author of eternal salvation Heb. 5:9; and to do so Christ "became a curse for us" Gal. 3:13 and even "sin" 2 Cor. 5:21; the last Adam became a life-giving Spirit 1 Cor. 15:45; became the possessor of a glorified body Phil. 3:21; etc.
23 - God’s People Believe God Can Change His Mind.
Ex. 32:11-13; God promised Abraham to give him a son by Sarah and "Abraham said to God, 'Oh, that Ishmael might live before You!'" Gen. 17:16-18; Abraham pressing God to be merciful to Sodom and Gomorrah Gen. 18:23-32; "the Lord was very angry with Aaron and would have destroyed him; so I prayed for Aaron" Deut. 9:19-20; "Therefore He said that He would destroy them, had not Moses His chosen one stood before Him in the breach, to turn away His wrath, lest He destroy them" Ps. 106:23.
24 - God’s People Believed They Can Change God’s Mind (including as Jesus teaches).
"Then Moses pleaded with the Lord his God" Exodus 32:11-13; "I was afraid of the anger and hot displeasure with which the Lord was angry with you, to destroy you. But the Lord listened to me at that time also. And the Lord was very angry with Aaron and would have destroyed him; so I prayed for Aaron" Deut. 9:19-20; "Therefore He said that He would destroy them, had not Moses His chosen one stood before Him in the breach, to turn away His wrath, lest He destroy them" Ps. 106:23; persistent widow Luke 18:4-7; Abraham pressing God to be merciful to Sodom and Gomorrah Gen. 18:23-32.
25 - God’s People Believe a Prophecy Does Not Have to Come To Pass and the Future is Not Settled.
"Thus says the Holy Spirit, 'So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this belt...' Now when we heard these things, both we and those from that place pleaded with him not to go up to Jerusalem" Acts 21:11-12; Hezekiah was sick and near death and Isaiah the prophet went to him and said, "Thus says the Lord: 'Set your house in order for you shall die and not live.' " Then he turned his face toward the wall, and prayed to the Lord, saying, "Remember now, O Lord, I pray, how I have walked before You in truth and with a loyal heart, and have done what was good in Your sight." And Hezekiah wept bitterly. And it happened, before Isaiah had gone out into the middle court, that the word of the Lord came to him, saying, "Return and tell Hezekiah the leader of My people, 'Thus says the Lord, the God of David your father: "I have heard your prayer, I have seen your tears; surely I will heal you." ' " 2 Kings 20:1-5 and Isa. 38:1-5; Moses Ex. 33:15-16.
26 - The Bible Says Some Things Happen By Chance and if there is true chance (and the random behavior of both willful creatures and of quantum particles, chaotic weather, etc.) then the future is not settled but open.
By chance a certain priest Luke 10:31; Time and chance happen to them all Eccl. 9:11; Ruth by chance (see the Hebrew) happened upon the field Ruth 2:3; Paul reasoned with those who happened (see the Greek: chancing) to be there Acts 17:17.
27 - The Bible Describes Men as Omniscient, as Having Sovereignty, and Foreknowledge therefore having foreknowledge, or being described as sovereign or omniscient, does not require knowledge of an exhaustively settled future.
"But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and you know all things" 1 John 2:20; "concerning you, my brethren... you also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge" Rom. 15:14 (see especially the Greek); "They knew me from the first" Acts 26:5 (see the Greek, foreknowledge), regarding sovereignty, the New King James Version, for example (though produced by Calvinist translators) never once uses the word sovereign or sovereignty for God but does once state, "Saul established his sovereignty" 1 Sam. 14:47. [See also 1 Cor. 13:2.]
28 - The Bible Shows that Time is in Heaven.
Jesus opened the seventh seal and then there was silence in heaven for about half an hour Rev. 8:1; martyrs in heaven (don't ask God to forgive those who killed them, but rather, lacking the false spirituality common on Earth), inherently acknowledging time in heaven, ask: "How long O Lord… until You… avenge our blood…?" Rev. 6:9; Greek philosophers denied that God was or will be and claimed He only "is", whereas God is "the One who is and who was and who is to come" and in heaven awaits the "time of the dead" when "they should be judged" Rev. 11:17-18; the tree of life bore twelve fruits, a different one each month Rev. 22:2; "this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down… from that time waiting till His enemies are defeated Heb. 10:12-13; As the LORD says, "I have held My peace a long time" Isa. 42:14; [etc.; plus the scores of verses above describing God as existing in everlasting duration.]
29 - Prayer Can Change What Would Otherwise Be the Future.
Jehoahaz pleaded and God listened and helped deliver Israel 2 Kings 13:4; God told Hezekiah to prepare for "you shall die and not live" but the King pleaded with God who then said, "I have heard your prayer and surely I will heal you... And I will add to your days fifteen years" 2 Kings 20:1-6; a persistent widow pleaded with an unjust judge and Jesus interpreted His own parable, Shall not God answer the prayers of those who continue to ask God Luke 18:1-7; the friend who comes asking for bread at midnight is resisted until his persists and Jesus interprets His parables saying So ask God "and it will be given to you" Luke 11:5-9; Jesus could call for twelve legions of angels (to save Him from the cross) Mat. 26:53; etc.
30 - God Gains Experiential Knowledge.
Of course Jesus is the eternal Second Person of the Godhead, and even as the Son He learned, for "though He was a Son, yet He learned obedience by the things which He suffered" Heb. 5:8; "Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men" Luke 2:52 so not only did the Son gain experiential knowledge, so to the Father increased in favor with His Son experientially while watching Him grow through the Incarnation; [God the Son "made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death" Phil. 2:7-8]; against impassibility, the Bible says of "Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God" Heb. 12:2; Jesus endured hostility Heb. 12:3; most Calvinists deny that God has all knowledge by rejecting that He has or even can have experiential knowledge. Yet the Bible explicitly declares that God has experiential knowledge as with the "go down and look" see-for-Myself verses (during which God the Son, pre-figuring the actual Incarnation, had temporarily emptied Himself of much knowledge, power, and presence). Scripture also demonstrates God's experiential knowledge by the Incarnation-related temptation verses and by the "learned" verses. (And of course, agreed to by all, God does not have the knowledge of what it is like for Him to sin. Yes, God the Son gained firsthand experiential knowledge when He became a "curse for us", became "sin for us", as Peter and Paul wrote (Gal. 3:13; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 Peter 2:24), but not by His own sinning but by taking upon Himself the sin of the world. So countless human beings and angels have knowledge which God lacks, to His glory!, the experiential knowledge of what it is like to sin.) Settled viewers deny also that God has the experiential knowledge of knowing what it is like for Him to learn. And Calvinists and even Arminians deny that God has the experiential knowledge of planning things yet future (to Him), and knowing things yet future (to Him), and then seeing those things come to pass. For by the unbiblical claim that God is outside of time, Calvinists, etc., deny that He can know (or experience) anything in sequence. So Calvinists view predestination and foreknowedge as mere figures of speech, whereas we open theists believe these are literally true of God. We affirm that GOD HIMSELF actually has foreknowledge, that is, that He knows some things in advance. And that God Himself actually predestines, that is, that HE plans things before HE then brings them to pass. Selah. If you disagree with this, ignore the following verses. But if you agree that open theists are correct that God's foreknowledge (Acts 2:23; Rom. 11:2; 1 Pet. 1:2; [Ex.. 3:19; Deut. 31:21; Ps. 139:4; Isa. 42:9; 44:7; Jer. 1:5) and predestining (Rom. 8:29-30; Eph. 1:5, 11; [Acts 3:18; 4:27-28; Isa. 46:10; Dan. 2:8]) are literally true of Him, then we can add these verses to this Category 30. Thus, by denying that God has experiential knowledge, Calvinists, etc., do not believe Him omniscient, i.e., that He has all knowledge, for their theology inherently rejects that God can possess an entire category of knowledge, namely, experiential knowledge, including what it is like for Him to learn, to have One's favor grow, to suffer, to endure, see brought to pass things known and planned in advance, etc.
31 - The Bible Shows Certain Prophecies Were Not Fulfilled as Given and Some Will Never Be Fulfilled Unfulfilled Prophecy. [Category 17 above is even stronger than this one and differs in that it lists verses in which God Himself says that one of His prophecies will not come to pass. Here in Category 31, the verses do not quote God explictily saying that a prophecy will fail, but rather, the text conclusively indicates that the prophecy will not come to pass.]
God prophesied to David by way of the ephod that Saul was on his way and, as to whether the men of Keilah would betray him to Saul, "the Lord said, 'They will deliver you.'" So David departed from there and, "Then it was told Saul that David had escaped from Keilah; so he halted the expedition" 1 Sam. 23:9-13 and the Keilahites never delivered David to Saul; Nebuchadnezzar himself did not take Tyre nor did he receive the spoils as prophesied Ezek. 29:18 Ezekiel prophesies that Nebuchadnezzar will take Egypt Ezek 29:19 but compared to the rest of sacred and profane history, Nebuchadnezzar never conquered Egypt; many scriptures indicate that Jesus would return soon after His departure, such that the apostles would not have time to go through the cities (villages) of Israel before Jesus returns Mat. 10:23; that some standing there may not die until they see the Son of Man returning in power in His kingdom Mat. 16:28 (not referencing the Transfiguration, because that occurred almost immediately); the apostle John might have remained alive until Christ's return John 21:23; [the near Second Coming explains the otherwise seeming reckless teachings of "Sell what you have" Luke 12:33; "And everyone who has left houses... or lands, for My name's sake" Mat. 19:29. "do not worry about your life, what you will eat" Luke 12:22. The "ravens... neither sow nor reap" yet "God feeds them" Luke 12:24; "Provide neither gold nor silver nor copper in your moneybelts" Mat. 10:9; "Sell all that you have and distribute to the poor, and... come, follow Me" Luke 18:22;] the generation Jesus was speaking to would not pass until the tribulation and Second Coming prophecies took place Mat. 24:34; yet God had warned He may not give Israel their kingdom as prophesied for "the instant I speak concerning a nation and concerning a kingdom, to build and to plant it, if it does evil in My sight so that it does not obey My voice [such as in rejecting their resurrected Messiah], then I will repent concerning the good with which I said I would benefit it" Jer. 18:9-10; thus God views the end times calendar as changeable, "I, the LORD, will hasten it in its time" Isa. 60:22; and even the saints can change the time of Christ's return as Peter wrote that believers too should set about "hastening the coming of the day of God" 2 Pet. 3:12; and even the length of the tribulation will change as Jesus said that, "those days will be shortened" Mat. 24:22; [so expecting Christ's soon return therefore, in early Acts, the converts of the Lord, of Peter, and of the rest of the Twelve, sold their homes and their land Acts 4:34-35; 5:1-2; (but the converts of the one sent to the Gentiles, the apostle Paul, did not sell their homes or fields for from them He raised relief 1 Cor. 16:1–4; 2 Cor. 8:1-9:15; Gal. 2:10; Rom. 15:25–31; Acts 11:27–30; 24:17 for the believers who had sold their homes]; the prophecy of expelling the pagan nations from the promised land would not be fulfilled as it had been prophesied Josh 3:10 with Deut. 7:1, 23, Jud. 2:1, 20-23, 3:5, 10; Ex. 32:10; 33:2, 3; Deut. 12:29; Judges 2:3; 10:13; God issues prophecies against Tyre and then reveals that the prophecy did not come to pass (and certainly not in its various details) Ezek. 26:12. [See also Jer. 18:6-10.]
32 - The Bible Shows Things Could Have Been Different.
Saul’s descendants could have reigned on his throne forever as Samuel said to him, "You have not kept the commandment of the Lord your God, which He commanded you. For now the Lord would have established your kingdom over Israel forever" 1 Sam. 13:13; and likewise, some of God's priests who were cut off could have served Him forever: "Now take Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister to Me as priest, Aaron and Aaron's sons: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar" Ex. 28:1 for "the Lord your God has chosen him out of all your tribes to stand to minister in the name of the Lord, him and his sons forever" Deut. 18:5 yet God killed two of the sons for "Nadab and Abihu died when they offered profane fire" Num. 26:61 for "fire went out from the Lord and devoured them, and they died before the Lord" Lev. 10:1-2; and about their father, "the Lord was very angry with Aaron and would have destroyed him; so I [Moses] prayed for Aaron" Deut. 9:20 and God did not kill him; also in the wilderness God had considered destroying the entire nation, for: "I would have said, 'I will make the memory of [Israel] to cease from among men' [but] lest their adversaries should misunderstand" and think that false gods and "not the Lord [had] done all this" Deut. 32:26-27; and to the whole nation once in Canaan, "if you do not drive out the inhabitants of the land... it shall be that I will do to you as I thought to do to them" Num. 33:55-56 a punishment they could have avoided if they had obeyed; God told David that Saul was on his way and, as to whether the Keilahites would betray him, "the Lord said, 'They will deliver you.'" So David departed from there and "Then it was told Saul that David had escaped from Keilah; so he halted the expedition" 1 Sam. 23:9-13 so that in a few minutes the outcome changed from what it otherwise would have been; God said He "caused the whole house of Judah to cling to Me... but they would not hear" Jer. 13:11 [that's the Hebrew use of "cause", that is, provide the opportunity; make possible or even likely, i.e., Mat. 5:32]; "God sent an angel to Jerusalem to destroy it. As he was destroying, the Lord looked and repented of the disaster, and said to the angel who was destroying, 'It is enough; now restrain your hand'" 1 Chr. 21:15 so that Jerusalem was not totally destroyed as it could have been; to Adam God commanded, "of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die" Gen. 2:17; etc.
33 - God Says What He Wants to Do, But Can’t or Doesn’t Do.
God wants Moses to speak to Pharaoh and after objections urges Moses to do so, but then lets Aaron speak instead Ex. 4:10-16; "the Lord met him and sought to kill him" Ex. 4:24 but did not after Moses' wife resentfully circumcised their son; God said He would destroy the nation of Israel and start over with Moses Ex. 32:9-14; the wicked "limited the Holy One of Israel" from doing what He otherwise would have done Ps. 78:41; to have Ezekiel eat gross bread Ezek. 4:12; God says, "I sought for a man among them... but I found no one" Ezek. 22:30.
Bonus Categories: (see the above 450+ unique verses tallied in a spreadsheet format and add to them...)
- Every Warning in Scripture
- Every Command in Scripture
- Hundreds of Subjunctive Passages (the God-breathed scriptures that use the uncertainty mood of the Greek verb)
The Top Seven Categories of Verses that Don’t Exist from Will Duffy's opening statement in his first debate vs. Matt Slick. If the future were settled, the many passages that should exist would include verses that say:
- That God is outside of Time (timeless, in an eternal now, not was nor will be but only is, has no past, has no future)
- That God knows everything that will ever happen
- That God can intervene in the past
- That God has decreed everything that will ever happen
- That God created time
- That God exists in the past and or the future
- That God knew us before the foundations of the Earth.
Note: God knows us from the moment of conception in the womb where each of us began as a single-celled boy or girl, still "unformed" Ps. 139:13-16, that is, not yet in the image of of person but in the relatively amorphous "unformed" spherical shape of a single cell. The Bible teaches that God knows us from that point, even before we were formed, but it does not teach that God knows us from before the foundation of the Earth. If the Scriptures did state this, then the underlying philosophical claims of the Settled View would be confirmed. But they do not and instead, a thousand times over as in the above 33 categories, the Bible affirms the Open View.
Help Folks Find this Genuine Page: The opentheism.org/verses initial compliation began for the December 2017 Will Duffy vs. Matt Slick Calvinism vs. Open Theism debates. Matt then created a similarly titled stub of an article at his site to grab the traffic of folks searching for this page. So if you want to help others find this genuine article, please post the link and share it with others: opentheism.org/verses.